An Introduction to Recursion Schemes and Codata

In 1991, Erik Meijer, Maarten Fokkinga, and Ross Paterson published their now-classic paper Functional Programming with Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire. Though this paper isn’t widely known outside of the functional programming community, its contributions are astonishing: the authors use category theory to express a set of simple, composable combinators, called recursion schemes, that automate the process of traversing and recursing through nested data structures. Though recursion schemes predate Meijer et. al’s work, this paper brings the enormous abstractive power of category theory to bear on the subject of traversing data structures—it’s a magnificent example of how category-theoretical concepts can bring both rigor and simplicity to day-to-day programming tasks.

Because nested structures appear in almost every problem domain and programming environment, from databases to 3D graphics to filesystems, the act of iterating through these structures is common, so common that most programmers barely notice when they’re doing it. As such, generalizing the act of recursive traversals provides immediate real-world benefits: our new generalized traversal can replace a host of type-specific traversal functions. In addition, by decoupling how a function recurses over data from what the function actually does, we reduce cognitive overhead and can focus entirely on the core behavior of our recursive functions. No matter the structures in question—lists, directory hierarchies, control flow graphs, database records—recursion schemes bring us an orderly and predictable way to traverse them. In addition, recursion schemes aren’t a product of any one programming language or environment—you can express recursion schemes in any language with first-class functions. Clojure, for example, uses them to power its clojure.walk API for generically traversing s-expressions and maps.

Meijer et. al go so far as to condemn functional programming without recursion schemes as morally equivalent to imperative programming with goto. While comparisons to Djikstra’s infamous letter to the ACM are often inane, the analogy is apt: just as using while and for loops rather than goto brings structure and harmony to imperative control flow, the use of recursion schemes over hand-written brings similar structure to recursive computations. This insight is so important that I’ll repeat it: recursion schemes are just as essential to idiomatic functional programming as for and while are to idiomatic imperative programming.

I’ve chosen to express the ideas in Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire in Haskell, though the paper was written years before Haskell came to prominence1. If you don’t know Haskell very well, don’t panic: you don’t need to be a Haskell whiz to understand the ideas presented here. I assume only a basic familiarity with Haskell syntax and the use of algebraic data types. I’m going to rely on a few idioms to better illustrate the concepts underlying recursion schemes—when I do, I will explain what happens behind the scenes. If you’re wholly unfamiliar with Haskell, you may want to dip into the first few chapters of Learn You a Haskell.

I’ll start with the simplest way to represent a well-typed syntax tree, then show how that simplicity makes it difficult to write a function that generically traverses and modifies trees. I’ll then redefine our syntax tree so as to take advantage of existing Haskell idioms and the expressive power of parameterized data types. Finally, I’ll show how recursion schemes emerge naturally when we express step-by-step descriptions of recursion patterns with common Haskell idioms.

Syntax Trees and Recursion

Let’s take a look at the simplest way to represent a syntax tree in Haskell: an ordinary algebraic datatype.

data Lit  
  = StrLit String
  | IntLit Int
  | Ident String
  deriving (Show, Eq)

data Expr  
  = Index Expr Expr
  | Call Expr [Expr]
  | Unary String Expr
  | Binary Expr String Expr
  | Paren Expr
  | Literal Lit
  deriving (Show, Eq)

data Stmt  
  = Break 
  | Continue
  | Empty
  | IfElse Expr [Stmt] [Stmt]
  | Return (Maybe Expr)
  | While Expr [Stmt]
  | Expression Expr
  deriving (Show, Eq)

This is a perfectly adequate syntax tree: it’s simple, straightforward, and works nicely with parsing libraries such as attoparsec or Peggy. Yet writing a function that operates on a Expr node and all its subexpressions is a tedious exercise indeed: here’s an example that flattens an Expr, recursively removing all Paren nodes:

-- this would turn the expression  
--    (((anArray[(10)])))
-- into
--    anArray[10]

flatten :: Expr -> Expr  
-- base case: do nothing to literals
flatten (Literal i) = Literal i

-- this is the important case: we shed the Paren constructor and just 
-- apply `flatten` to its contents
flatten (Paren e) = flatten e

-- all the other cases preserve their constructors and just apply 
-- the flatten function to their children that are of type `Expr`.
flatten (Index e i)     = Index (flatten e) (flatten i)  
flatten (Call e args)   = Call (flatten e) (map flatten args)  
flatten (Unary op arg)  = Unary op (flatten arg)  
flatten (Binary l op r) = Binary (flatten l) op (flatten r)

This code is oppressive, ugly, and unmaintainable. Four out of this function’s six lines are dedicated to the simple yet tedious task of ensuring that flatten propery recurses into its argument’s subexpressions—not only is this boring to write, but any future changes (such as added constructors or fields) to Expr will force us to rewrite it. (I’ll refer to recursion written in this style as explicit recursion, in contrast with the implicit recursion provided by recursion schemes.) In addition, it’s extremely easy to make mistakes in this definition—the syntatic noise that the primitive recursion introduces renders it hard to spot a missing recursive invocation of flatten, yet even one such omission introduces a critical bug.

We can, however, bring some sanity to this madness by writing a function apply that, given a function f operating on Exprs, applies f to each subexpression of a given Expr:

applyExpr :: (Expr -> Expr) -> Expr -> Expr  
-- base case: applyExpr is the identity function on constants
applyExpr f (Literal i) = Literal i

-- recursive cases: apply f to each subexpression
applyExpr f (Paren p) = Paren (f p)  
applyExpr f (Index e i) = Index (f e) (f i)  
applyExpr f (Call e args) = Call (f e) (map f args)  
applyExpr f (Unary op arg) = Unary op (f arg)  
applyExpr f (Binary l op r) = Binary (f l) op (f r)

By separating out the act of recursing over subexpressions, we can reduce our six-line definition of flatten to two lines. In the body of flatten, we need only specify that Paren nodes be treated differently than other nodes, relying on the applyExpr function to take care of recursion for us:

flatten (Paren e) = flatten e  
flatten x = applyExpr flatten x

This function just got far, far easier to write and maintain. The apply function is now responsible for both the base case and the simple recursive case of flattening an expression: all we have to do is define the interesting case, i.e. its handling of Paren nodes. Awesome.

But let’s not get ahead of ourselves. We haven’t really prevented any boilerplate or eliminated room for bugs here: applyExpr just contains and isolates the boilerplate, and we’d need to write a new apply function for each and every new type we define. A sufficiently smart compiler could write them for us. And GHC, being a very smart compiler, can. First, though, we’ll have to make this Expr data type a little bit more general.

Parameterized Types

data Expr a  
  = Index a a
  | Call a [a]
  | Unary String a
  | Binary a String a
  | Paren a
  | Literal Lit
  deriving (Show, Eq)

This new definition of Expr is identical to our previous one, except here we’ve added a type variable a and replaced all recursive occurrences of the Expr type with it. Put another way, we have parameterized this type in terms of its subexpressions. As such, we have to change our definition of applyExpr: the function we apply to each subexpression can no longer be of type Expr -> Expr, but must become a -> a: indeed, we can make it a -> b, letting the function change the type of an Expr’s subexpressions if necessary.

apply :: (a -> b) -> Expr a -> Expr b

The sharp-eyed among you will notice how similar this function is to the built-in map function over lists:

-- `map` takes a function (a -> b) and makes it operate on lists containing 'a's  
map :: (a -> b) -> [a] -> [b]

This is not a coincidence: in fact, the apply function is exactly analogous to map for lists—you can think about both functions as mapping or promoting a function f so as to operate on a larger datatype, whether that’s an Expr type or a list ([]) type. This pattern of mapping is so common that its generalized version is a central Haskell concept: the typeclass Functor represents all the types that provide a map-like function, called fmap2:

class Functor f where  
  fmap :: Functor f => (a -> b) -> f a -> f b

Countless datatypes—lists, trees, optional (Maybe) values, IO actions, even functions themselves—implement the Functor typeclass. Indeed, it’s so common, and implementing fmap is usually so straightforward, that GHC provides a built-in mechanism to write the definition of fmap for you: we can just add Functor to the list of classes our Expr declaration derives, along with Show and Eq:

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}

data Expr a  
  = Index a a
  | Call [a]
  | Unary String a
  | Binary a String a
  | Paren a
  | Literal Lit
  deriving (Show, Eq, Functor) -- fmap for free

In addition, you can derive instances of the Foldable and Traversable typeclasses, which provide dozens of of useful functions to access and iterate through an Expr’s subexpressions—in essence, Expr now comes with batteries included. Parameterizing Expr and deriving Functor, Foldable, and Traversable provides us with an embarrassment of helper functions—but this parameterized version of Expr isn’t quite the same as our previous defintion!

Our first formulation of Expr, since its recursive subfields were of type Expr, could represent arbitrarily-nested Exprs, but this new one can’t—it seems like we always have to insert Lit—to establish the maximum possible depth of a tree of Exprs:

  • Expr Lit represents an expression with no subexpressions
  • Expr (Expr Lit) represents expressions with at most one more layer of subexpressions.
  • Expr (Expr (Expr Lit)) represents two-level expressions, and so on, and so forth.

In order for the parameterized definition of Expr to be equal to our original formulation, we have to assume that there exists a type such that, when substituted for a in the definition of Expr a, yields an expression with arbitrarily-nested Expr subexpressions.

type NestedExpr = Expr (Expr (Expr (Expr …)))

But in order for our assumption about the type variable a to hold true, we need some sort of trick that allows us to represent, in a finite manner, a representation of the type of arbitrarily-nested Exprs.

Fixed Points

Consider the Y-combinator. Given a function f that takes one argument, y(f) represents the result of repeatedly applying f to itself:

y(f) = f(f(f(f(f ...))))

The sharp-eyed will have noticed that the expansion of y(f) is very similar to our NestedExpr type above. If we have a Y-combinator embedded entirely in the type system, we can describe the repeated application of Expr to itself, in a manner identical to how the value-level Y-combinator operators on functions, and in turn we can describe an Expr a where a represents arbitrarily-nested Exprs.

type Y t = t (t (t (t (t ...))))

This general concept3 is known as ‘fixed-point’: we say that y(f) is the fixed point (or fixpoint) of the f function, and that Y Expr is the fixed point of the Expr functor. And here’s the kicker—we can build a Y-combinator that works in the type system too, and that’s is how we will express the self-similar nature of an Expr’s subexpressions.

We need a data type Y that, when given another type f, wraps an f whose children are of type (Y f). Let’s call it Term, and let’s call its constructor In, representing the fact that we are stuffing one level of recursion into a fixed form. In addition, we’ll define an out function that unwraps a Term.

data Term f = In (f (Term f))

out :: Term f -> f (Term f)  
out (In t) = t

It’s illuminating to substitute Expr in for the type variable in the above definition:

Term Expr = In (Expr (Term Expr))

out :: Term Expr -> Expr (Term Expr)

From this definition, we can see that, given a Term Expr, we can use the out function to convert it to an Expr the subexpressions of which are, in turn Term Exprs. That means that we can unwrap a Term Expr into an arbitrarily-nested Expr through successive applications of out: our Term Expr can expand into an Expr (Term Expr), which can expand into an Expr (Expr (Term Expr)), and so on and so forth. This style of defining recursive types using fixed-points of functors is an example of codata. A full discussion of the theory behind codata (and the many different forms that codata can take) is, unfortunately, beyond the scope of this article; I recommend this excellent introduction.

Generic Traversals

At this point, we’re well grounded in defining our data types with fixed-points of functors. Let’s do something awesome with them.

Consider the notion of the bottom-up traversal: specifically, let’s write pseudo-English instructions for traversing the fixed-point of a functor:

To traverse a Term bottom-up with a function ƒ:
  1. Unpack the term so as to access its children.
  2. Recursively traverse each child of the unpacked term with ƒ.
  3. Repack the term.
  4. Apply ƒ to it.

We have the tools to express each step of this procedure—let’s call it bottomUp.

bottomUp :: Functor a => (Term a -> Term a) -> Term a -> Term a

Given a function fn from Terms to Terms, we’ll unpack the Term with the out function, recursively traverse each child of the unpacked term with fmap (bottomUp fn), repack the term with the In constructor, and then simply apply fn to the result. The fmap bottomUp call does all the heavy lifting in this function: it captures the act of recursing into each child (if any) of a given functor.

Rather than naming both the fn function parameter and the Term parameter, I’m going to define bottomUp using combinators to join these four invocations—out, fmap bottomUp, In, and fn. Namely, I’m going to use the >>> operator, defined in Control.Arrow, for left-to-right function composition,f >>> g x is equal to g(f(x)). Though this style is a bit unconventional—the right-to-left function composition operator, ., is more common—I’ve chosen to do this because it’s a useful visual indicator of the order in which functions are invoked. (This order will become important later.)

So now let’s write this function, gluing each element together left-to-right with the >>> operator:

bottomUp fn =  
  out                    -- 1) unpack
  >>> fmap (bottomUp fn) -- 2) recurse
  >>> In                 -- 3) repack
  >>> fn                 -- 4) apply

And there it is, our first recursion scheme. In writing bottomUp we have developed a type-safe and type-generic combinator for recursively transforming any Functor: whether it’s our Expr type from earlier, a list, a rose tree, or anything else. This is, frankly, kind of amazing. As such, let’s rewrite our original flatten function so that it operates on Terms that wrap arbitrarily-nested Exprs:

flattenTerm :: Term Expr -> Term Expr  
flattenTerm (In (Paren e)) = e  -- remove all Parens  
flattenTerm other = other       -- do nothing otherwise

flatten :: Term Expr -> Term Expr  
flatten = bottomUp flattenTerm

Though our previous definition of flatten that used apply to represent its recursion was concise, this is even more elegant: our bottomUp recusion scheme lets us factor out the recursive parts of this definition entirely. We can focus on the relevant behavior of the flattening function—namely, that it removes all Paren nodes—and define it in two simple clauses. In addition, recursively invoking this function with bottomUp flattenTerm is clearer than our prior definitions in that we have made the bottom-up nature of this traversal explicit. This is really a remarkable departure from our previous definition of flatten—it’s hard to imagine how it could be made shorter.

But let’s not rest on our laurels. Let’s consider the steps involved with writing a top-down traversal of a Term, the obvious analogue to our bottom-up traversal:

To traverse a Term top-down with a function ƒ:
  1. Apply ƒ to the term.
  2. Unpack the term so as to access its children.
  3. Recursively traverse each child of the term with ƒ.
  4. Repack the term.

These instructions are elegantly symmetrical with the ones for our bottom-up traversal—if you read the instructions in reverse and replace occurrences of “unpack” and “repack”, they are identical. And here’s the kicker: our code can capture this. We can express this notion of “reading in reverse” by replacing occurrences of the left-to-right operator >>> with <<<, the right-to-left operator4, and we swap “unpack” and “repack” with out and In.

topDown, bottomUp :: Functor f => (Term f -> Term f) -> Term f -> Term f

topDown f  = In <<< fmap (topDown f) <<< out <<< f 

bottomUp f = out >>> fmap (bottomUP f) >>> In >>> f

The fact that we can express the duality between top-down and bottom-up traversals merely by “reversing the arrows” that determine our code’s flow, all the while retaining generality and type safety, is nothing short of amazing. That these definitions emerged naturally out of fixed-points and functors, two concepts central to Haskell and to functional programming in general, is doubly amazing.

We’re Done, Finally

Top-down and bottom-up traversals are the simplest of recursion schemes—we’ve barely touched the surface of what Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes, and Barbed Wire has to offer us. In the next installment of this series I’ll explore the myriad varieties of recursion schemes—apomorphisms, paramorphisms, and histomorphisms, just to name a few—and how generalizing each recursion scheme allows us to derive new, more-general schemes.

I’d like to thank everyone who read a draft of this entry, especially Nate Soares and Manuel Chakravarty. I’d also like to thank Colin Barrett, who helped me puzzle all this out over late-night Skype sessions. If you have any comments or questions, please drop me a line on Twitter.


  1. Rather than tying Bananas, Lenses, Envelopes and Barbed Wire to any particular programming language, Meijer et. al used notation derived from Bird-Meertens formalism, a calculus of program construction based on recursion schemes. (Meijer’s Ph.D. thesis discussed compiler specifications using the Bird-Meertens formalism). This calculus was also known as “Squiggol”, after its “squiggly” notation. Though this notation is well-specified, its syntactic constructions, featuring elements such as “banana brackets” and “concave lenses”, is somewhat abstruse.

  2. You may be curious as to why Haskell provides both map and fmap functions in its Prelude, considering that map is just a version of fmap that can only operate on lists. This has indeed been a bone of contention within the Haskell community. As Brent Yorgey, author of the essential Typeclassopedia, put it: “the usual argument is that someone just learning Haskell, when using map incorrectly, would much rather see an error about lists than about Functors.”

  3. A complete discussion of the beauty and notability of fixed-point combinators is beyond the scope of this article: for such explorations, please refer to Raymond Smullyan’s wonderful To Mock a Mockingbird or Reginald Braithwaite’s combinators.info.

  4. This function is provided by the Prelude with the . operator.